Improve Your Technology Vocabulary
As one of the leading providers of Healthcare IT for over two decades, we understand that technology lingo can be a foreign language to healthcare providers and their staff. Not only can technology be intimidating, there are thousands of new computer terms being introduced each year. We know this can be overwhelming at times. That’s why we thought it would be helpful to compile a list of common computer terms and their definitions.
Common Computer Terms
Any software application that displays advertising banners while the program is running. These applications often include annoying pop-ups in the application code. As a result, adware is widely shunned since it could include code that tracks a user’s personal information that’s passed on to scammers.
Notification that a particular attack is directed at the information system of an organization.
The Intentional act of attempting to bypass one or more computer security controls.
To verify the identity of a user, device, or other entity.
A security measure designed to establish the validity of a transmission, message, or originator by means of verifying an individual’s authorization to receive specific categories of information.
Hidden software or hardware mechanism used to circumvent security controls. Also synonymous with a trap door.
A computer attack that seeks to maximize damage and infection speed using combined methods. For example, The Nimda, CodeRed, and Bugbear exploits were all blended threats.
Action, device, procedure, technique or other measures that reduce the vulnerability of an information system.
Data Driven Attack:
A form of encoded attack of innocuous data which is executed by a user or a process to implement the attack. Furthermore, a data driven attack is a concern for firewalls and network administrators.
Denial of Service:
The result of any action or series of actions that prevents any part of an information system from functioning.
An attack that uses brute-force software to generates thousands or millions of random password with intent to gain access to your servers or network. For example, ransomware attackers commonly use a dictionary attack to gain access to your server and encrypt your data.
A tool sent to multiple hosts, which can then be coordinated to anonymously perform an attack on the target host simultaneously after some time delay.
Assuming the DNS name of another system by either corrupting the name service cache of a victim system or by compromising a domain name server for a valid domain.
A firewall is a hardware appliance that protects your business from hackers and unauthorized users. For example, a firewall is like the main door to your building; it permits access at designated times. A firewall also has filters that allow access to authorized staff and network administrators.
Type of incident involving insertion of a large volume of data resulting in a denial of service.
An unauthorized user who attempts to or gains access to an information system.
An act of bypassing the security mechanisms of a system.
Software capable of performing a process on an information system, and with malicious intent.
Mobile code is software retrieved from a remote system and installed locally without the user’s knowledge. As a result, the malicious software can compromise security and steal your passwords and data. For example, a phishing scammer could use mobile code to steal your data and passwords.
A block of data sent over the internet, or a local network.
A feature incorporated into firewalls to limit the flow of information based on source, destination, or type of service. With this technology, packet filters let network administrators limit protocol specific traffic.
A device or program that monitors the data traveling between computers on a network.
Similar to phishing, pharming seeks to obtain personal or financial information through domain spoofing. Although pharming websites appear legitimate, the scammer poisons a DNS server by entering alias IP addresses. As a result, your internet browser will show you’re at a legitimate website when you’re actually browsing a scammer’s website. Unfortunately, pharming sites are hard to detect and allows scammers to target large groups of individuals at once.
Phishing is the act of sending an email that appears to originate from a legitimate business like eBay, PayPal, banks, or credit card companies. As a result, Phishing’s intention is to steal personal or financial information from a recipient for malicious purposes.
An attempt to gather information about an information system for the apparent purpose of circumventing its security controls.
A software agent that performs a function or operation on behalf of another application or system while hiding the details involved.
Any program that acts to produce copies of itself. For example, a worm or virus.
A retrovirus is a virus that waits until all possible backup media are infected too so that it is not feasible to restore the system to an uninfected state.
A hacker security tool that captures passwords and message traffic to and from a computer. More specifically, a rootkit is a collection of tools that allows hackers to provide a backdoor into a system. One of the more common computer terms for a rootkit virus is “Trojan Horse”.
Software that mounts a denial of service attack by exploiting IP broadcast addressing and ICMP ping packets to cause flooding.
To indiscriminately send unsolicited, unwanted, irrelevant, or inappropriate messages, especially commercial advertising in mass quantities. Noun: electronic “junk mail.”
An email or electronic communications scam targeted towards a specific individual, organization or business. Although often intended to steal data for malicious purposes, cybercriminals may also intend to install malware on a targeted user’s computer.
Unauthorized use of legitimate identification and authentication data, however, it was obtained, to mimic a subject different from the attacker. Also, Impersonating, masquerading, piggybacking, and mimicking are forms of spoofing.
Any software using someone’s internet connection in the background without their knowledge or explicit permission. For example, a free software download could contain spyware. However, it’s important to note that not all free downloads include spyware. Once installed, spyware monitors user activity on the Internet and transmits that information in the background to someone else. Spyware can also gather information about e-mail addresses and even passwords and credit card numbers.
Any circumstance with the ability to adversely impact an information system through unauthorized access, destruction, disclosure, data modification, or denial of service.
A malicious or harmful code contained inside apparently harmless programming or data in such a way that it can get control and do its chosen form of damage, such as ruining the file allocation table on your hard disk.
Self-replicating and malicious code that attaches itself to an application program or another executable system component. More often than not, viruses are difficult to detect and leave no obvious signs of their presence.
A weakness in an information system, security procedure, internal controls, or implementation.
Independent program that replicates one computer to another across network connections. As a result, these worms often clog networks and information systems as it spreads.
Zero-Hour attacks occur when new malware is launched against the population before spam firewalls, internet filters, firewalls, operating systems, and antivirus software are aware of the threat and are updated with defensive definitions or firmware.Contact Us
About Innovative Computer Systems
Innovative Computer Systems is a Managed Services Provider specializing in Healthcare Information Technology (HIT) and Corporate Business Technology. We work closely with our clients to understand their daily workflow requirements. Some of our clients include leaders in Ophthalmology, Facility Maintenance, Pediatrics, Law, Urology, Dermatology, Commercial Real Estate, Internal Medicine and Ambulatory Surgery.